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Glossary Definitions for Words beginning with "C"

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Calendering
A process of passing cloth between rollers (or callendars) under heat and pressure to produce a variety of effects or textures in a fabric.
Calsolene Oil
This liquid wetting agent is very helpful when dyeing tightly woven fabrics and increasing evenness of dyeing by breaking the surface tension of the water and "wetting out" the fabric. It can also be added to concentrated dye solutions for direct application as in tie dye and hand painting to help with the spreading of the dye on the fabric. Another use is to add a little when pasting up dyes, particularly those that tend to be hard to dissolve.
Canvas
A strong, even weave heavy cloth made from cotton, hemp or flax used with clothing, bags, paintings, curtains and many other exciting things.
Carefree
Any time you see the name Carefree, expect an easy-care, machine-washable fabric that may be hard to dye. These are wrinkle-resistant linen, washable wool, wrinkle-free cotton and microfiber made of synthetics, and/or treated with permanent press treatments.
Carrageenan
A natural thickener used with water for marbling to create a medium on which paints can float. This can also be found in chocolate milk and some ice creams.
Carrier
An auxiliary product that is a type of accelerant commonly used in the printing of fibers with disperse dyes.
Catalyst
A substance which accelerates a chemical reaction although not necessarily a part of that reaction.
Cationic
A dye technique used for certain fibers (nylon, polyester) which creates deep, vibrant colors. It can produce a multi-color effect with a single dye bath.
Cellulose Fiber
A fiber derived from plants which shares a common molecular structure (cotton, linen, rayon, hemp.)This is important to know when selecting the type of dye to bond with the material.
Chambray
A fine lightweight woven fabric made of color warp yarn and white fill yarn.
Charmeuse
A soft, elegant silk with a smooth, satin weave face and a dull crepe on the back. Also known as crepe backed silk satin.
Chemical Assistant
An assistant in dyeing which aids in the bonding of the dye to the fiber. See Dye Assistant
Chemical Water
A blend of water, urea and sodium alginate used with Dharma Fiber Reactive dyes to create a dye solution.
Chenille
A woven fabric similar to cut velvet, and usually a thicker pile. This fabric, named from the French word for caterpillar, is woven of soft velvety cords and used for throws, scarves, clothes, etc.
Chevron
A herringbone weave(v-shaped).
Chiffon
A very light, usually transparent fabric in plain weave usually in silk.
Chinese Suspension Hooks
Three very fine prongs in a plastic holder for stretching your silk in place. Many silk painters consider these the best. The three prongs hook onto the silk and a rubber band is used to stretch between the plastic end and your frame.
Chintz
A cotton fabric printed or glazed usually printed with bright colors.
Citric Acid
(Also called Citric Acid Crystals) A substitute for acetic acid and vinegar in acid dye recipes. Citric acid can be substituted for acetic acid in equal measure. Citric acid is often preferred over vinegar and acetic acid because it imparts no sour smell during dyeing.
Classes of dye
These classes are made by up according to the types of fiber they dye and the chemical assistants necessary, i.e. Fiber Reactive, Acid, direct, disperse, etc.
Clear Resist
A resist that is colorless, like clear Gutta or clear Water Based Resist.
Cohesion
When the particles of a substance are bonded throughout its mass,
Cold Water Dye
Dharma Fiber Reactive Dyes are highly reactive dyes for cotton, rayon, silk, wool, and any natural fibers. They can be used in a dye bath to paint with or tie dye. They are called cold water dyes because they will "set" over time at room tempurature, or in a bath situation in luke warm temperatures, as opposed to being simmered or steamed.
Cold Wax
A resist which can be used without melting and applied like a paste resist.
Color
Color has three measurable properties: hue = the name of the color; value = the degree of lightness or darkness; intensity = the degree of brightness.
Color Fastness
The resistance of a cloth's color to various situations, for example washing/abrasion, or light. For wash/abrasion these are measured on standard scales of 1-5, where 5 signifies no visible change and 1 substantial change. For light these are measured on a scale of 1-8, where 8 represents the highest fastness,1 the lowest.
Color Gradation
The gradual change of one color to another through even steps between each shade.
Color Remover
A product that removes color or dye, like Thiorea dioxide, discharge paste or bleach. These are usually specific to what type of dye it removes and can sometimes be used to fix mistakes or for wonderful discharge effects as in Shibori.
Colored Resist
These resists are used for the serti technique and may come in a variety of colors or metallics. If they are clear waterbased they will wash out. For colored or metallic waterbased resists they generally should be heatset and then they can be washed or dry cleaned. Some colored guttas can not be dry cleaned after application or the color will disappear.
Color Retention
How well a paint keeps its original color. Threats to color retention are exposure to ultraviolet radiation and abrasion by wear or repeated cleaning.
Color Wheel
Color wheels let an artist visualize the theory of how different colors relate to each other when mixed. The color wheel is a circle based on the primary colors red/yellow/blue; or magenta/ yellow /cyan. Most have secondary and tertiary colors with all the colors tinted -color + white- and shaded color + black.
Colorant
Concentrated color (dyes or pigments) that can be added to paints to change the color.
Colorfast
Something non-fading even after prolonged exposure to light.
Colorless Extender
Also known as just simply an extender. Extenders are added in paint to increase coverage, alter appearance, thin color without altering consistence, control flow and other desirable properties. They are good for marbling to create an area of visible fabric.
Combed cotton
Combed cotton is considered superior to basic carded cottons in that the short fibers are removed before spinning so as to leave a smoother thread. This results in a finer, more even fabric of high quality.
Complementary Colors
Two colors that are opposite each on the color wheel. Red/Green, Yellow/Purple, Orange/Blue. Mixed two complements together and you get wonderful browns.
Composition
How visually satisfying the different parts of a picture are arranged. A well composed picture is made up of different components which form a harmony that is aesthetically pleasing.
Compound Colors
Colors made of varying amounts of all three primary colors.
Controlled Dyeing
The fiber, dye, and dye assistants are each measured according to each other, in order to achieve consistent results. The weight and measurement of the dry ingredients must be taken into account to control the dyeing process.
Corduroy
This strong, durable fabric is made with vertically cut wales on medium to heavyweight cotton pile. The original name "corde du roi" means "cord of the king".
Corn Dextrin
Works as a paste resist with Procion Fiber Reactive Dyes. Use it to create different visually textural effects with procion dyes by applying with different tools and shapes, then applying the dye. Like many other water based resists, Corn dextrin is not suitable for immersion in dye baths. There are recipes in the books for cooking it (i.e. Color by Design by Ann Johnston).
Cotton
A natural soft fluffy fiber that comes from the surface of seedpods, otherwise known as bolls which grow from a bush like plant or small tree. Its strength, length, fineness, and whiteness determine the quality. The longer fibers are preferable as they make a stronger finer cotton. Plant fibers are cellulose and cotton contains about 90 percent cellulose, 6 percent moisture and other natural impurities. Procion Fiber Reactive dyes work best with cotton - Acid dyes will just lightly stain it.
Cotton Sheers
Sheers are thin, light-colored woven fabrics such as - batiste, lawn, organdy, and voile. Used in drapery and dress goods.
Crepe
The word comes from the French word "creper" meaning to crimp or frizz and describes crinkled or grained surfaced fabrics including wool, cotton, silk, rayon, and other synthetics and blends. Crepe de Chine is a very popular silk crepe.
Crocking
The tendency of excess dye to rub off.
Crochet
A loose way of knitting by looping thread with a hooked needle.

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